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Transformations of pesticides in the atmosphere : A state of the art

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Author: Atkinson, R. · Guicherit, R. · Hites, R.A. · Palm, W.U. · Seiber, J.N. · Voogt, P. de
Type:article
Date:1999
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Place: Dordrecht, Netherlands
Institution: TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie
Source:Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 1-4, 115, 219-243
Identifier: 235176
doi: doi:10.1023/A:1005286313693
Keywords: Environment · Atmospheric lifetimes · Pesticides · Reaction rates · Transformation products · Air pollution · Composition effects · Environmental impact · Environmental protection · Free radical reactions · Particulate emissions · Rate constants · Removal · Atmospheric lifetimes · Transformation products · Pesticide effects

Abstract

The current knowledge about transformation rates and products of pesticides in the atmosphere is reviewed. Reactive species and their concentrations in the atmosphere are presented. Reactions of pesticides with these species (including photolysis) in the gas and the particulate phase are evaluated from available experimental data. The potential of estimation methods is discussed. Experimental techniques for laboratory and outdoor measurements are reviewed. Finally, an estimation is made of uncertainties in atmospheric lifetimes due to chemical or physical reactions. It is concluded that the most important transformation of pesticides in the atmosphere is due to reaction with OH radicals. Very few experimental data for pesticides are available though. The levels of uncertainty in OH radical concentrations are acceptable, however, for a proper estimation of atmospheric removal rates due to reactions with OH radicals of those pesticides for which experimental transformation rates (of homologues) are available.