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Serum carotenoids and vitamins in relation to markers of endothelial

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Author: Herpen-Broekmans, W. van · Klöpping-Ketelaars, I. · Michiel, B. · Cornelis, K. · Hans, P. · Hendriks, F.J. · Tijburg, L. · Poppel, G. van · Kardinaal, A.
Type:article
Date:2004
Institution: TNO Preventie en Gezondheid
Source:European Journal of Epidemiology, 10, 19, 915-921
Identifier: 238045
doi: doi:10.1007/s10654-004-5760-z
Keywords: Nutrition Health · Physiological Sciences · Carotenoids · Endothelial function · Inflammation · Vitamins · Alpha tocopherol · Ascorbic acid · Beta carotene · Beta cryptoxanthin · C reactive protein · Carotenoid · Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 · Lycopene · Unclassified drug · Zeaxanthin · Blood flow · Disease marker · Inflammation · Leukocyte · Population research · Vascular endothelium · Vasodilatation · Vitamin blood level · Adult · Alpha-Tocopherol · Ascorbic Acid · Beta Carotene · Biological Markers · C-Reactive Protein · Carotenoids · Cross-Sectional Studies · Endothelium, Vascular · Female · Fibrinogen · Humans · Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 · Male · Middle Aged · Smoking · Xanthophylls

Abstract

Background: Endothelial cell dysfunction may be related to an increase in cellular oxidative stress. Carotenoids and vitamins could have an antioxidant-mediated tempering influence on endothelial function and inflammation, thereby reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods: We measured serum carotenoids, α-tocopherol and Vitamin C concentrations in 379 subjects sampled from the general population. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (Fbg) and leukocytes were measured as markers of inflammation. Furthermore, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD; n=165) were measured as markers of endothelial function. Relationships between serum carotenoids and vitamins and markers of endothelial function and inflammation were analysed after adjustment for confounding. Results: In the total study group, lutein and lycopene were inversely related to sICAM-1 with regression-coefficients of -0.38 ± 0.19 (p=0.04) and -0.16 ± 0.08 (p=0.04) per 1 μmol/l, respectively. β-Carotene was inverse related to leukocytes (-0.23 ± 0.07; p=0.007) and CRP (-1.09 ± 0.30; p=0.0003) per 1 μmol/l. Vitamin C was inverse related to CRP (-0.01 ± 0.005; p=0.04) per 1 μmol/l, whereas α-tocopherol was positively related to CRP (0.03 ± 0.01; p=0.02) per 1 μ/l. Zeaxanthin was inversely related to FMD (31.2 ± 15.3; p=0.04) per 1 μmol/l. Conclusion: The inverse relations between carotenoids, Vitamin C and sICAM-1, CRP and leukocytes may help to explain the possible protective effect of carotenoids and Vitamin C on atherosclerosis through an influence on inflammatory processes and endothelial function.