Improvement of safety and health in the workplace can bring economic benefits for both the individual worker, company and the society as a whole. Employers and decision makers can be convinced of the profitability of improving working conditions by making financial and economic estimations. This booklet shows how to make an economic estimation of improved working conditions. It discusses the most important pitfalls and explanations about relevant principles and provides practical outlines, references and suggestions for further reading. Background information explains how safety and health at work affects costs and benefits in companies. The context in which evaluations usually take place is described to understand the results of an evaluation and to decide how an economic assessment is going to be performed. The book shows how the economic asessment can be made in five steps: preparing, selecting variables and indicators, finding data, valuation and calculations, and interpretation, use and refinement of results.