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Biomarkers of satiation and satiety

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Author: Graaf, C. de · Blom, W.A.M. · Smeets, P.A.M. · Stafleu, A. · Hendriks, H.F.J.
Institution: TNO Voeding Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO
Source:American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 6, 79, 946-961
Identifier: 237781
Keywords: Biology Nutrition · Food and Chemical Risk Analysis · Appetite · Biomarker · Obesity · Satiation · Satiety · Biological marker · Cholecystokinin · Ghrelin · Glucagon like peptide 1 · Glucose · Leptin · Appetite · Body weight · Brain function · Caloric intake · Central nervous system · Consumer · Energy balance · Energy consumption · Food intake · Functional magnetic resonance imaging · Glucose blood level · Human · Hunger · Nerve cell network · Physical chemistry · Positron emission tomography · Review · Satiety · Signal transduction · Stomach distension · Animal · Brain · Diet · Energy metabolism · Physiology · Stomach · Thermogenesis · Animals · Appetite · Biological Markers · Brain · Diet · Energy Metabolism · Humans · Satiation · Stomach · Thermogenesis


This review's objective is to give a critical summary of studies that focused on physiologic measures relating to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety may be used as a tool for assessing the satiating efficiency of foods and for understanding the regulation of food intake and energy balance. We made a distinction between biomarkers of satiation or meal termination and those of meal initiation related to satiety and between markers in the brain [central nervous system (CNS)] and those related to signals from the periphery to the CNS. Various studies showed that physicochemical measures related to stomach distension and blood concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 are peripheral biomarkers associated with meal termination. CNS biomarkers related to meal termination identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography are indicators of neural activity related to sensory-specific satiety. These measures cannot yet serve as a tool for assessing the satiating effect of foods, because they are not yet feasible. CNS biomarkers related to satiety are not yet specific enough to serve as biomarkers, although they can distinguish between extreme hunger and fullness. Three currently available biomarkers for satiety are decreases in blood glucose in the short term (<5 min), which have been shown to be involved in meal initiation; leptin changes during longer-term (>2-4 d) negative energy balance; and ghrelin concentrations, which have been implicated in both short-term and long-term energy balance. The next challenge in this research area is to identify food ingredients that have an effect on biomarkers of satiation, satiety, or both. These ingredients may help consumers to maintain their energy intake at a level consistent with a healthy body weight. © 2004 American Society for Clinical Nutrition.