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Chronic air pollution exposure during pregnancy and maternal and fetal c-reactive protein levels: The generation R study

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Author: Hooven, E.H. van den · Kluizenaar, Y. de · Pierik, F.H. · Hofman, A. · Ratingen, S.W. van · Zandveld, P.Y.J. · Lindemans, J. · Russcher, H. · Steegers, E.A.P. · Miedema, H.M.E. · Jaddoe, V.W.V.
Type:article
Date:2012
Source:Environmental Health Perspectives, 5, 120, 746-751
Identifier: 460459
doi: doi:10.1289/ehp.1104345
Keywords: Health · Air pollution · C-reactive protein · Dispersion modeling · Inflammation · Nitrogen dioxide · Particulate matter · Pregnancy · Urban Development · Built Environment · Earth & Environment · UES - Urban Environment & Safety · EELS - Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences

Abstract

Background: Exposure to air pollution has been associated with higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, suggesting an inflammatory response. Not much is known about this association in pregnancy. Objectives: We investigated the associations of air pollution exposure during pregnancy with maternal and fetal CRP levels in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands. Methods: Particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) levels were estimated at the home address using dispersion modeling for different averaging periods preceding the blood sampling (1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and total pregnancy). High-sensitivity CRP levels were measured in maternal blood samples in early pregnancy (n = 5,067) and in fetal cord blood samples at birth (n = 4,450). Results: Compared with the lowest quartile, higher PM10 exposure levels for the prior 1 and 2 weeks were associated with elevated maternal CRP levels (> 8 mg/L) in the first trimester [fourth PM10 quartile for the prior week: odds ratio (OR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.61; third PM10 quartile for the prior 2 weeks: OR, 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.56]; however, no clear dose-response relationships were observed. PM10 and NO2 exposure levels for 1, 2, and 4 weeks preceding delivery were not consistently associated with fetal CRP levels at delivery. Higher long-term PM10 and NO 2 exposure levels (total pregnancy) were associated with elevated fetal CRP levels (> 1 mg/L) at delivery (fourth quartile PM10: OR, 2.18; 95% CI: 1.08, 4.38; fourth quartile NO 2: OR, 3.42; 95% CI: 1.36, 8.58; p-values for trend < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may lead to maternal and fetal inflammatory responses.