Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and techniques, with emphasis on sampling parameters and sampling efficiency. It is concluded that identified sampling protocols, including sampling techniques, deviate at possible key issues, which hampers comparisons of study results. It is recommended to conduct sampling efficiency studies prior to field sampling, under conditions that are quite similar to conditions of exposure regarding exposure process, levels of skin loading, and time of residence of the compound on the skin. Harmonization of sampling protocols will be a first step in creating a database for better understanding the influence of sampling parameters on the performance of removal techniques to assess dermal exposure. (C) 2000 British Occupational Hygiene Society.