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Visceral fat accumulation is an important determinant of PAI-1 levels in young, nonobese men and women: Modulation by cross-sex hormone administration

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Author: Giltay, E.J. · Elbers, J.M.H. · Gooren, L.J.G. · Emeis, J.J. · Kooistra, T. · Asscheman, H. · Stehouwer, C.D.A.
Institution: Gaubius Instituut TNO
Source:Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 11, 18, 1716-1722
Identifier: 234681
doi: DOI:10.1161/01.ATV.18.11.1716
Keywords: Health · Insulin sensitivity · Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 · Sex hormones · Visceral fat accumulation · Adipose Tissue · Adolescent · Adult · Female · Gonadal Steroid Hormones · Humans · Insulin Resistance · Linear Models · Male · Obesity · Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 · Transsexualism · Viscera


Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) levels, leading to impaired fibrinolysis, are associated with increased visceral fat in middle-aged and obese subjects. It is unknown, however, whether this association is independent of other disturbances clustered in the insulin resistance syndrome. We analyzed this association in young, nonobese transsexual men and women before and after administration of cross-sex steroids, which potentially influence many elements of the insulin resistance syndrome, including PAI-1 levels and visceral fat accumulation. We assessed the visceral fat area (by MRI); total body fat; insulin sensitivity (with a glucose clamp technique); and plasma levels of PAI-l, insulin, and triglycerides in young (<37 years old), nonobese (body mass index <28 kg/m2), healthy men (n= 18) and women (n= 15) before and after 12 months of cross-sex hormone administration. Men were treated with ethinyl estradiol 100 μg/d plus cyproterone acetate 100 mg/d, and women were treated with testosterone esters 250 mg IM every 2 weeks. At baseline, only visceral fat area was significantly correlated with plasma PAI-1 levels in both men (r=0.57, P=0.03) and women (r=0.59, P=0.03). In multivariate linear regression analysis, this association was independent of total body fat, insulin sensitivity, and plasma levels of triglycerides and insulin. After 12 months of cross-sex hormone administration, the plasma PAI-1 levels were no longer correlated with visceral fat (which had increased). We conclude that in young, nonobese men and women, visceral fat area is an important determinant of plasma PAI-1 levels. After cross-sex hormone administration, this association was no longer demonstrable.