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Effects of Mood Inductions by Meal Ambiance and Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Endocannabinoids and N-Acylethanolamines in Humans: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Author: Schrieks, I.C. · Ripken, D. · Stafleu, A. · Witkamp, R.F. · Hendriks, H.F.J.
Type:article
Date:2015
Source:PLOS One, 5, 10
Identifier: 525383
doi: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126421
Article number: e0126421
Keywords: Nutrition · 2 arachidonoylglycerol · Alcohol · Anandamide · Ethanolamine derivative · Fatty acid · Hydrocortisone · N acylethanolamine derivative · Palmidrol · Stearoylethanolamide · Unclassified drug · Adult · Alcohol consumption · Anger · Controlled study · Depression · Fatigue · Fatty acid blood level · Female · Happiness · Human · Human experiment · Hydrocortisone blood level · Meal · Mood change · Normal human · White wine · Food and Nutrition · Healthy Living · Life · MSB - Microbiology and Systems Biology · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences

Abstract

Background: The endocannabinoid system is suggested to play a regulatory role in mood. However, the response of circulating endocannabinoids (ECs) to mood changes has never been tested in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of mood changes induced by ambiance and moderate alcohol consumption on plasma ECs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), anandamide (AEA), and some N-acylethanolamine (NAE) congeners in humans. Methods: Healthy women (n = 28) participated in a randomized cross-over study. They consumed sparkling white wine (340 mL; 30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine (340 mL; <2 g alcohol) as part of a standard evening meal in a room with either a pleasant or an unpleasant ambiance. Results: Plasma concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and stearoylethanolamide (SEA) increased after 30 min in the unpleasant ambiance, while they decreased in the pleasant ambiance. Changes in ECs and their NAE congeners correlated with mood states, such as happiness and fatigue, but in the pleasant ambiance without alcohol only. ECs and their NAE congeners were correlated with serum free fatty acids and cortisol. Conclusion: This is the first human study to demonstrate that plasma NAEs are responsive to an unpleasant meal ambiance. Furthermore, associations between mood states and ECs and their NAE congeners were observed.