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Optimal control and design of a cold store using dynamic optimization

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Author: Lukasse, L. · Broeze, J. · Sluis, S. van der
Institution: TNO Bouw en Ondergrond
Source:Optimal Control Applications and Methods, 1, 30, 61-75
Identifier: 241323
doi: doi:10.1002/oca.857
Keywords: Energy · Calculus of variations · Design parameters · Economics · Hamiltonian · Pontryagin · Refrigeration · Aerospace vehicles · Capillary tubes · Cooling · Design · Economics · Evaporation · Evaporative cooling systems · Hamiltonians · Intersections · Large scale systems · Optimization · Calculus of variations · Cold stores · Combined controls · Controlled process · Design parameters · Design problems · Dynamic optimizations · Evaporative cooling · First-order derivatives · Hamiltonian · Mechanical refrigerations · Objective functions · Optimal controls · Over capacities · Pontryagin · Refrigeration technologies · System Dynamics · Refrigeration · Energy Efficiency · Energy / Geological Survey Netherlands


The design of controlled processes is a combined optimal control and design problem (OCDP). Literature on solving large OCDPs is rare. This paper presents an algorithm for solving large OCDPs. For this algorithm system dynamics, objective function and their first-order derivatives must be continuous in the state, control and design parameters. The algorithm is successfully applied to the combined control and design problem of a cold store with three possible refrigeration technologies: mechanical refrigeration, ventilation and evaporative cooling. As a result, insight into cost effectiveness of the refrigeration technologies is generated. It is concluded that for this cold store in the Netherlands evaporative cooling is too expensive. Ventilation is economically viable if the cold store is to be used in January only. In case the cold store is to be operated all year then it is most economical to rely on mechanical refrigeration only and use the overcapacity during most part of the year to shift refrigeration to low-tariff hours. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.