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The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI)

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Author: Graauw, T. de · Helmich, F.P. · Phillips, T.G. · Stutzki, J. · Caux, E. · Whyborn, N.D. · Dieleman, P. · Roelfsema, P.R. · Aarts, H. · Assendorp, R. · Bachiller, R. · Baechtold, W. · Barcia, A. · Beintema, D.A. · Belitsky, V. · Benz, A.O. · Bieber, R. · Boogert, A. · Borys, C. · Bumble, B. · Caïs, P. · Caris, M. · Cerulli-Irelli, P. · Chattopadhyay, G. · Cherednichenko, S. · Ciechanowicz, M. · Coeur-Joly, O. · Comito, C. · Cros, A. · Jonge, A. de · Lange, G. de · Delforges, B. · Delorme, Y. · Boggende, T. den · Desbat, J.M. · Diez-González, C. · Di Giorgio, A.M. · Dubbeldam, L. · Edwards, K. · Eggens, M. · Erickson, N. · Evers, J. · Fich, M. · Finn, T. · Franke, B. · Gaier, T. · Gal, C. · Gao, J.R. · Gallego, J.D. · Gauffre, S. · Gill, J.J. · Glenz, S. · Golstein, H. · Goulooze, H. · Gunsing, T. · Güsten, R. · Hartogh, P. · Hatch, W.A. · Higgins, R. · Honingh, E.C. · Huisman, R. · Jackson, B.D. · Jacobs, H. · Jacobs, K. · Jarchow, C. · Javadi, H. · Jellema, W. · Justen, M. · Karpov, A. · Kasemann, C. · Kawamura, J. · Keizer, G. · Kester, D. · Klapwijk, T.M. · Klein, T. · Kollberg, E. · Kooi, J. · Kooiman, P.P. · Kopf, B. · Krause, M. · Krieg, J.M. · Kramer, C. · Kruizenga, B. · Kuhn, T. · Laauwen, W. · Lai, R. · Larsson, B. · Leduc, H.G. · Leinz, C. · Lin, R.H. · Liseau, R. · Liu, G.S. · Loose, A. · López-Fernandez, I. · Lord, S. · Luinge, W. · Marston, A. · Martín-Pintado, J. · Maestrini, A. · Maiwald, F.W. · McCoey, C. · Mehdi, I. · Megej, A. · Melchior, M. · Meinsma, L. · Merkel, H. · Michalska, M. · Monstein, C. · Moratschke, D. · Morris, P. · Muller, H. · Murphy, J.A. · Naber, A. · Natale, E. · Nowosielski, W. · Nuzzolo, F. · Olberg, M. · Olbrich, M. · Orfei, R. · Orleanski, P. · Ossenkopf, V. · Peacock, T. · Pearson, J.C. · Peron, I. · Phillip-May, S. · Piazzo, L. · Planesas, P. · Rataj, M. · Ravera, L. · Risacher, C. · Salez, M. · Samoska, L.A. · Saraceno, P. · Schieder, R. · Schlecht, E. · Schlöder, F. · Schmülling, F. · Schultz, M. · Schuster, K. · Siebertz, O. · Smit, H. · Szczerba, R. · Shipman, R. · Steinmetz, E. · Stern, J.A. · Stokroos, M. · Teipen, R. · Teyssier, D. · Tils, T. · Trappe, N. · Baaren, C. van · Leeuwen, B.J. van · Stadt, H. van de · Visser, H. · Wildeman, K.J. · Wafelbakker, C.K. · Ward, J.S. · Wesselius, P. · Wild, W. · Wulff, S. · Wunsch, H.J. · Tielens, X. · Zaal, P. · Zirath, H. · Zmuidzinas, J. · Zwart, F.
Type:article
Date:2010
Institution: TNO Industrie en Techniek
Source:Astronomy and Astrophysics, 7-8, 518
Identifier: 425186
Article number: No.: L6
Keywords: Infrared: general · Instrumentation: spectrographs · Methods: observational · Submillimeter: general · Techniques: spectroscopic · Infrared: general · Instrumentation: spectrographs · Methods: observational · Submillimeter: generals · Techniques: spectroscopic · Bolometers · Correlators · Frequency bands · Heterodyning · Launching · Mixers (machinery) · Observatories · Orbits · Spectrographs · Spectrometers · Instruments

Abstract

Aims. This paper describes the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) that was launched onboard ESA's Herschel Space Observatory in May 2009. Methods. The instrument is a set of 7 heterodyne receivers that are electronically tuneable, covering 480-1250 GHz with SIS mixers and the 1410-1910 GHz range with hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers. The local oscillator (LO) subsystem comprises a Ka-band synthesizer followed by 14 chains of frequency multipliers and 2 chains for each frequency band. A pair of auto-correlators and a pair of acousto-optical spectrometers process the two IF signals from the dual-polarization, single-pixel front-ends to provide instantaneous frequency coverage of 2 × 4 GHz, with a set of resolutions (125 kHz to 1 MHz) that are better than 0.1 km s<sup>-1</sup>. Results. After a successful qualification and a pre-launch TB/TV test program, the flight instrument is now in-orbit and completed successfully the commissioning and performance verification phase. The in-orbit performance of the receivers matches the pre-launch sensitivities. We also report on the in-orbit performance of the receivers and some first results of HIFI's operations.