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Stress proteins in CNS inflammation

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Author: Noort, J.M. van
Type:article
Date:2008
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:Journal of Pathology, 2, 214, 267-275
Identifier: 240596
doi: doi:10.1002/path.2273
Keywords: Biology · Biomedical Research · Brain · Heat shock proteins · Inflammation · Neurodegeneration · caspase 3 · chaperone · crystallin · heat shock protein · heat shock protein 70 · heat shock protein 90 · I kappa B · immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein · protein bcl 2 · RANTES · tau protein · toll like receptor · Alexander disease · Alzheimer disease · antigen presentation · antigen presenting cell · apoptosis · central nervous system disease · cytokine production · cytotoxic T lymphocyte · degenerative disease · human · inflammation · nonhuman · Parkinson disease · priority journal · protein aggregation · protein degradation · protein expression · protein folding · protein phosphorylation · protein structure · review · Antigen Presentation · Apoptosis · Encephalomyelitis · Heat-Shock Proteins · Humans · Inflammation Mediators · Molecular Chaperones · Neurodegenerative Diseases

Abstract

Stress proteins or heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous cellular components that have long been known to act as molecular chaperones. By assisting proper folding and transport of proteins, and by assisting in the degradation of aberrant proteins, they play key roles in cellular metabolism. The frequent accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates during chronic neurodegenerative disorders suggests failure of HSP functions to be a common denominator among such diseases. Recent developments have clarified that functions of HSPs extend well beyond their role in protein folding and degradation alone. Stress-inducible HSPs also regulate apoptosis, antigen presentation, inflammatory signalling pathways and, intriguingly, also serve as extracellular mediators of inflammation. Several receptors have been identified for extracellular HSPs, which control inflammatory pathways similar to those activated by cytokines and chemokines. In this review, both the traditional and the exciting novel functions of HSPs are discussed, with a focus on their relevance for neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Recent advances in this field suggest that HSPs represent attractive novel targets as well as therapeutic entities for CNS disorders. Copyright © 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.