The impact of apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) deficiency on hepatic lipid metabolism was addressed in mice in the presence or the absence of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). In addition to the expected moderate reduction in plasma cholesterol levels, apoCIKO mice showed significant increases in the hepatic content of cholesteryl esters (+58%) and triglycerides (+118%) and in biliary cholesterol concentration (+35%) as compared with wild-type mice. In the presence of CETP, hepatic alterations resulting from apoC-I deficiency were enforced, with up to 58% and 302% increases in hepatic levels of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in CETPTg/apoCIKO mice versus CETPTg mice, respectively. Biliary levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, and bile acids were increased by 88, 77, and 20%, respectively, whereas total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations in plasma were further reduced in CETPTg/apoCIKO mice versus CETPTg mice. Finally, apoC-I deficiency was not associated with altered VLDL production rate. In line with the previously recognized inhibition of lipoprotein clearance by apoC-I, apoCI deficiency led to decreased plasma lipid concentration, hepatic lipid accumulation, and increased biliary excretion of cholesterol. The effect was even greater when the alternate reverse cholesterol transport pathway via VLDL/LDL was boosted in the presence of CETP. Copyright ©2007 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.