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Fibrates suppress bile acid synthesis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-mediated downregulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase expression

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Author: Post, S.M. · Duez, H. · Gervois, P.P. · Staels, B. · Kuipers, F. · Princen, H.M.G.
Type:article
Date:2001
Institution: Gaubius Instituut TNO
Source:Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 11, 21, 1840-1845
Identifier: 236311
Keywords: Animals · Antilipemic Agents · Bile Acids and Salts · Cells, Cultured · Cholesterol · Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase · Clofibric Acid · Cytochrome P-450 CYP27A1 · Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System · Down-Regulation · Hepatocytes · Mice · Mice, Knockout · Pyrimidines · Rats · Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear · RNA, Messenger · Steroid Hydroxylases · Transcription Factors · Transcription, Genetic

Abstract

Fibrates are hypolipidemic drugs that affect the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Fibrate treatment causes adverse changes in biliary lipid composition and decreases bile acid excretion, leading to an increased incidence of cholesterol gallstones. In this study, we investigated the effect of fibrates on bile acid synthesis. Ciprofibrate and the PPARα agonist Wy14,643 decreased bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes and suppressed cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase activities, paralleled by a similar reduction of the respective mRNAs. Treatment of rats with 0.05% (wt/wt) ciprofibrate decreased cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase enzyme activity and mRNA. The functional involvement of PPARα in the suppression of both enzymes was proven with the use of PPARα-null mice. In wild-type mice, ciprofibrate reduced cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme activities and mRNA. The decrease in mRNA of both enzymes is regulated transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally, respectively, resulting in a decline in the output of fecal bile acids (-45%) and a 3-fold increase in fecal cholesterol secretion. These effects were completely abolished in PPARα-null mice. A decreased bile acid production by PPARα-mediated downregulation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase may contribute to the increased risk of gallstone formation after fibrate treatment. Chemicals/CAS: Antilipemic Agents; Bile Acids and Salts; Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase, EC 1.14.13.17; Cholesterol, 57-88-5; ciprofibrate, 52214-84-3; Clofibric Acid, 882-09-7; Cyp27a1 protein, mouse, EC 1.14.-; Cytochrome P-450 CYP27A1, EC 1.14.-; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, 9035-51-2; pirinixic acid, 50892-23-4; Pyrimidines; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; RNA, Messenger; Steroid Hydroxylases, EC 1.14.-; Transcription Factors