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Neck performance of human substitutes in frontal impact direction

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Author: Wismans, J.S.H.M. · Kroonenberg, A.J. van den · Hoofman, M.L.C. · Horst, M.J. van der
Institution: TNO Wegtransportmiddelen
Source:RTO HFM Specialists' Meeting on "Models for aircrew safety assessment: uses, limitations and requirements", 26-28 October, 1998, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA, 5/1-5/6
Identifier: 362713
Keywords: Biology · Neck performance · Dummies · Tests · Biofidelity · THOR · Hybrid III


In the past several laboratories have conducted human object tests in order to derive biofidelity performance requirements for crash dummmies and computer models. Both human volunteer and human cadaver tests have been conducted. Particularly noteworthy are the human volunteer tests conducted at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory (NBDL) in New Orleans. In an extensive test program a large number of human subjects were exposed to impacts in frontal, lateral and oblique directions. Detailed analyses of these tests have been conducted and presented in various publications. Based on these results, a set of biofidelity performance requirements was developed. These requirements include trajectories and rotations of the head as well as acceleration requirements and data on the neck loads. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of various human neck models with the observed response in the volunteer tests. Concerning mechanical models, the neck of the Hybrid III dummy, which is the dummy currently specified in motor vehicle safety regulations, as well as the neck of the new THOR dummy will be evaluated. It will be shown that the neck of the THOR dummy offers more biofidelity than the Hybrid III dummy neck. Regarding mathematical neck models, a neck model developed in the MADYMO crash simulation program will be evaluated. It will be shown that the mathematical model which includes a representation of vertebrae, ligaments and active muscle response is able to reproduce the observed human subject response more accurately than the available mechanical models