Work-related stress is of growing concern in developing countries due to important developments in the modern world; two of the most significant being globalisation and the changing nature of work. Although the emphasis of this booklet is on developing countries, the problem of workrelated stress is also significant in countries in transition who are subjected to rapid and drastic economical and social changes (for example in Russia), where theere is an increased demand for adaptation of workers, the over-riding of traditional values, the reorientation of the occupational health system, and generally poor working conditions. This WHO publication focuses on: -the effects of globalisation processes and the changing nature of work, -a model and definition of work-related stress, -how to manage work-related stress. It also considers possibilities for action by stakeholders (employer and employee). It is concluded, among other things, that hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are one of the main chronic diseases in developing countries consuming an important proportion of their public health budget. High strain jobs could be contributing from 21 to 32% of hypertension prevalence. Job redesign would be a cost-effective measure to prevent a considerable proportion of this disease in addition to all the efforts taken to control the traditional risk factors (chemical, biological, and physical including health promotion aspects addressing for example overweight and nutrition).