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Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and Insulin Sensitivity

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Author: Sierksma, A. · Patel, H. · Ouchi, N. · Kihara, S. · Funahashi, T. · Heine, R.J. · Grobbee, D.E. · Kluft, C. · Hendriks, H.F.J.
Type:article
Date:2004
Institution: TNO Preventie en Gezondheid
Source:Diabetes Care, 1, 27, 184-189
Identifier: 237588
doi: doi:10.2337/diacare.27.1.184
Keywords: Health · Physiological Sciences · Adiponectin · C peptide · Cholesterol · Cytokine · Fatty acid · Glucose · High density lipoprotein cholesterol · Insulin · Insulin receptor · Low density lipoprotein cholesterol · Tap water · Triacylglycerol · Tumor necrosis factor alpha · Adipose tissue · Adult · Alcohol consumption · Cholesterol blood level · Clinical trial · Controlled study · Crossover procedure · Diabetes mellitus · Diet restriction · Glucose blood level · Insulin sensitivity · Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus · Normal human · Randomized controlled trial · Risk factor · Whiskey · Adiponectin · Aged · Alcohol Drinking · Body Mass Index · Body Weight · Cross-Over Studies · Glucose Clamp Technique · Humans · Hyperinsulinism · Insulin · Insulin Resistance · Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins · Male · Middle Aged · Proteins · Regression Analysis · Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumers have enhanced insulin sensitivity and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, has been found to be negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity. Moderate alcohol consumption may increase adiponectin, which in turn causes a decrease of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. A decreased TNF-α level may consequently increase insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - To test this hypothesis, we performed a randomized crossover partially diet-controlled study. A total of 23 healthy middle-aged male subjects consumed daily four glasses of whisky (40 g ethanol) or tap water with dinner during two successive periods of 17 days. RESULTS - Moderate alcohol consumption increased plasma adiponectin level (11%; P = 0.002) but did not affect plasma TNF-α level. An increase in insulin sensitivity index was observed in an insulin-resistant subgroup (21%; P = 0.11), which positively correlated with the relative alcohol-induced increase in plasma adiponectin level (r = 0.73, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS - The experimental results are in agreement with observational data. Moderate alcohol consumption improved insulin sensitivity in relatively insulin-resistant middle-aged men, an effect that may be mediated through alcohol-induced increases in adiponectin.