Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium does not survive a pH 2.5 acid challenge under conditions similar to those used for Escherichia coli (J. W. Foster, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:898-907, 2004). Here, we provide evidence that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium can display arginine-dependent acid resistance (AM) provided the cells are grown under anoxic conditions and not under the microaerobic conditions used for assessment of AR in E. coli. The role of the arginine decarboxylase pathway in Salmonella AR was shown by the loss of AR in mutants lacking adiA, which encodes arginine decarboxylase; adiC, which encodes the arginine-agmatine antiporter; or adiY, which encodes an AraC-like regulator. Transcription of adiA and adiC was found to be dependent on AdiY, anaerobiosis, and acidic pH. Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.