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Simulation of rear end impact with a full body human model with a detailed neck: role of passive muscle properties and initial seating posture

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Author: Happee, R. · Wismans, J.S.H.M. · Horst, M.J. van der · Bovendeerd, P.H.M. · Kingma, H.
Institution: TNO Wegtransportmiddelen
Source:ESV 17th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, held June 4-7, 2001 in Amsterdam. Session 6 'Simulation and Computer Modelling in Vehicle Safety', paper No. 119
Identifier: 362248
Keywords: Traffic · human factors · impacts · modelling · models · seating · simulations · restraints


To study the mechanics of the neck during rear end impact, in this paper an existing global human body model and an existing detailed submodel of the neck were combined into a new model. The combined model is validated with responses of volunteers and post mortem human subjects (PMHSs) subjected to rear end impacts of resp 5g and 12g. The volunteers (n=7, 7 tests) were seated on a standard car seat with head restraint, while the PMHSs (n=3, 6 tests) were placed on a rigid seat without head restraint. The model shows good agreement with the PMHS responses when muscle tensile stiffness is increased towards published PMHS tissue properties. For the volunteer simulations, initial seating posture and head restraint position were found to strongly influence the model response. More leaning forward (increasing of horizontal distance head head restraint) results in larger T1 and head motions. A correct vertical position of the head restraint (top of head in one line with top of head restraint) reduces the head extension angle. The model has the potential to study injury mechanisms