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Particulate matter regulation for two-stroke two wheelers: necessity or haphazard legislation?

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Author: Rijkeboer, R.C. · Bremmers, D.A.C.M. · Samaras, Z. · Ntziachristos, L.
Publisher: Elsevier
Place: Amsterdam
Institution: TNO Industrie en Techniek
Source:Atmospheric Environment, 13, 39, 2483-2490
Identifier: 238411
Keywords: Emission · Diesel engines · Environmental impact · Ground vehicles · Laws and legislation · Sustainable development · Particulate matter (PM) emission · Road vehicles · Two-stroke engines · Vehicle technology · Particulate emissions


Although interest in particulate emissions has increased considerably during recent years, the subject of particulate matter (PM) emissions from small two-stroke engines used in road vehicles is still largely unexplored. This paper presents the results of an investigation, which examined the typical emission level and the typical characteristics of two-stroke PM, as well as the possible impact on the (urban) environment, all in comparison to diesel engines. Attention was also paid to the possible problems concerning the measurement of two-stroke PM and the possibilities to add a PM requirement to the moped type approval procedure. It is demonstrated that despite the significant PM emission levels of current two wheelers, particle characteristics are different compared to diesel exhaust PM and hence following a diesel-like procedure to quantify particle emissions may not be the indicated approach. Hence, based on the experimental evidence and the foreseen technology developments, recommended steps forward are proposed, taking into account the need for efficient regulation of PM and the particularities of the specific vehicle technology.