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Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

Author: Rist, L. · Mueller, A. · Barthel, C. · Snijders, B. · Jansen, M. · Simões-Wüst, A.P. · Huber, M. · Kummeling, I. · Mandach, U. von · Steinhart, H. · Thijs, C.
Type:article
Date:2007
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:British Journal of Nutrition, 4, 97, 735-743
Identifier: 239916
doi: doi:10.1017/S0007114507433074
Keywords: Health · Food and Chemical Risk Analysis · Conjugated linoleic acid · Human milk · Organic nutrition · Trans-Vaccenic acid · conjugated linoleic acid · vaccenic acid · adult · article · breast milk · controlled study · dietary intake · education · female · human · isomer · lactation · lifestyle · lipid composition · maternal age · maternal nutrition · meat · Netherlands · nutritional assessment · puerperium · season · statistical significance · Breast Feeding · Cohort Studies · Female · Health Food · Humans · Lactation · Linoleic Acids, Conjugated · Meat Products · Milk, Human · Nutrition Physiology · Oleic Acids

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study have been analysed. The participants had documented varying lifestyles in relation to the use of conventional or organic products. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum and analysed for fatty acid composition. The content of rumenic acid (the main CLA) increased in a statistically significant way while going from a conventional diet (no organic dairy/meat products, 0.25 weight % (wt%), n 186) to a moderately organic diet (50-90% organic dairy/meat, 0.29 wt%, n 33, P=0.02) and to a strict organic diet (>90% organic dairy/meat, 0.34 wt%, n 37, P≤0.001. The levels of TVA were augmented among the participants with a moderately organic diet (0.54 wt%) and those with a strict organic diet (0.59 wt%, P≤0.001), in comparison with the conventional group (0.48 wt%). After adjusting for covariables (recruitment group, maternal age, maternal education, use of supplements and season), statistical significance was retained in the group of the strict organic dairy users (P<0.001 for rumenic acid). Hence, the levels of CLA and TVA in human milk can be modulated if breastfeeding mothers replace conventional dairy and/or meat products by organic ones. A potential contribution of CLA and TVA to health improvement is briefly discussed. © The Authors 2007.