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Degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, and pain/disability in dogs following destabilization or articular cartilage grooving of the stifle joint

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Author: Frost-Christensen, L.N. · Mastbergen, S.C. · Vianen, M.E. · Hartog, A. · Groot, J. de · Voorhout, G. · Wees, A.M.C. van · Lafeber, F.P.J.G. · Hazewinkel, H.A.W.
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 11, 16, 1327-1335
Identifier: 241084
doi: doi:10.1016/j.joca.2008.03.013
Keywords: Health · ACLT · Gait · Groove-model · Meniscectomy · Osteoarthritis · Animal experiment · Animal model · Animal tissue · Anterior cruciate ligament injury · Article · Articular cartilage · Cartilage cell · Controlled study · Disease model · Dog · Gait · Joint degeneration · Knee osteoarthritis · Knee pain · Knee radiography · Nonhuman · Osteophyte · Physical disability · Priority journal · Synovitis · Tissue regeneration · Animals · Anterior Cruciate Ligament · Arthralgia · Cartilage, Articular · Chondrocytes · Dogs · Gait · Inflammation · Joint Instability · Models, Animal · Osteoarthritis · Osteophyte · Regeneration · Stifle


Objective: The most used model for joint instability is the canine anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-model. The ACLT-model can be extended with a medial meniscectomy (MX) (i.e., ACLT-MX-model) to avoid unintentional, and with that variable, meniscal damage. The present study compares the ACLT-MX-model with the more recently introduced Groove-model on longitudinal measurements of osteophyte formation and gait as a surrogate marker of pain and disability, in addition to structural endpoint parameters. Methods: Degenerative joint damage was induced Labrador dogs according to the ACLT-MX-model (n = 7) or Groove-model (n = 7). Every 4 weeks radiographs were taken to analyze osteophyte formation. Every 2 weeks gait was recorded using force-plate analysis. Joints were analyzed for features of degeneration 12 weeks after surgery. Results: Both models showed similar osteophyte formation and gait changes for both experimental and contra-lateral control joints, although more pronounced for the ACLT-MX-model. This was supported by the structural endpoint measurements. Cartilage integrity, chondrocyte activity and synovial inflammation revealed similar characteristics of degenerative joint disease in both groups, again more pronounced in the ACLT-MX-model. Conclusions: The ACLT-MX-model demonstrates characteristics of joint degeneration that are related to moderate to severe osteoarthritis with clear synovial inflammatory activity. The Groove-model is a less painful and a significantly milder model of joint degeneration. The latter model might be more suitable to study subtle changes as a result of intervention than the more robust ACLT-MX-model. © 2008 Osteoarthritis Research Society International.