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Association between diet-quality scores, adiposity, total cholesterol and markers of nutritional status in european adults: Findings from the Food4Me study

Author: Fallaize, R. · Livingstone, K.M. · Celis-Morales, C. · Macready, A.L. · San-Cristobal, R. · Navas-Carretero, S. · Marsaux, C.F.M. · O’Donovan, C.B. · Kolossa, S. · Moschonis, G. · Walsh, M.C. · Gibney, E.R. · Brennan, L. · Bouwman, J. · Manios, Y. · Jarosz, M. · Martinez, J.A. · Daniel, H. · Saris, W.H.M. · Gundersen, T.E. · Drevon, C.A. · Gibney, M.J. · Mathers, J.C. · Lovegrove, J.A.
Type:article
Date:2018
Source:Nutrients, 1, 10
Identifier: 784893
doi: doi:10.3390/nu10010049
Article number: 49
Keywords: Diet scores · Dried blood spots · Dutch healthy diet index · Healthy eating index · Mediterranean diet score · Metabolic health · Nutritional biomarkers · Personalized nutrition · Biological marker · Carotenoid · Cholesterol · Adult · Alternate healthy eating index · Body mass · Cardiometabolic risk · Case control study · Diet quality score · Digestive tract parameters · Disease association · Europe · Female · Healthy eating index · Human · Ischemic heart disease · Major clinical study · Male · Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus · Nutritional status · Obesity · Observational study · Omega 3 index · Physical activity · PREDIMED mediterranean diet score · Waist circumference · Waist to height ratio · Biomedical Innovation · Healthy Living · Life · MSB - Microbiology and Systems Biology · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences

Abstract

Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI) and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL), and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC), total carotenoids, and omega-3 index) in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480) were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU) countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05), and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05). Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05). We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Chemicals/CAS: cholesterol, 57-88-5