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Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers

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Author: Hoek, A.C. · Luning, P.A. · Stafleu, A. · Graaf, C. de
Institution: TNO Voeding
Source:Appetite, 3, 42, 265-272
Identifier: 237835
doi: doi:10.1016/j.appet.2003.12.003
Keywords: Nutrition Health · Food and Chemical Risk Analysis · Food-related lifestyle attitudes · Health consciousness · Meat substitutes · Vegetarians · adult · article · attitude · consumer · controlled study · demography · female · food intake · health behavior · health status · health survey · human · lifestyle · male · meat · Netherlands · outcomes research · rating scale · social aspect · social interaction · socioeconomics · vegetarian · Adult · Analysis of Variance · Attitude to Health · Diet · Diet Surveys · Diet, Vegetarian · Female · Food, Formulated · Humans · Life Style · Male · Meat · Netherlands · Sex Distribution · Socioeconomic Factors


The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in the Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants ≥18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, 1997/1998. Vegetarians (n=63) and consumers of meat substitutes (n=39) had similar socio-demographic profiles: higher education levels, higher social economic status, smaller households, and more urbanised residential areas, compared to meat consumers (n=4313). Attitudes to food were assessed by the food-related lifestyle instrument. We found that vegetarians (n=32) had more positive attitudes towards importance of product information, speciality shops, health, novelty, ecological products, social event, and social relationships than meat consumers (n=1638). The health consciousness scale, which was used to assess attitudes to health, supported earlier findings that vegetarians are more occupied by health. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of meat substitute consumers (n=17) were predominantly in-between those from vegetarians and meat consumers. The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.