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Macular pigment density in relation to serum and adipose tissue concentrations of lutein and serum concentrations of zeaxanthin

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Author: Broekmans, W.M.R. · Berendschot, T.T.J.R. · Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A. · Vries, A.J. de · Goldbohm, R.A. · Tijburg, L.B.M. · Kardinaal, A.F.M. · Poppel, G. van
Type:article
Date:2002
Institution: TNO Voeding
Source:American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 3, 76, 595-603
Identifier: 236664
Keywords: Carotenoids · Lutein · Macular degeneration · Macular pigment · Netherlands · Zeaxanthin · alpha tocopherol · ascorbic acid · carotenoid · xanthophyll · zeaxanthin · adipose tissue · adult · aged · article · blood level · eye fundus · female · human · human experiment · male · normal human · pigment epithelium · retina macula age related degeneration · retina macula lutea · risk factor · vitamin blood level · Adipose Tissue · Adolescent · Adult · Aged · alpha-Tocopherol · Ascorbic Acid · beta Carotene · Body Mass Index · Carotenoids · Cholesterol · Cholesterol, HDL · Cholesterol, LDL · Female · Humans · Lutein · Macula Lutea · Male · Middle Aged · Regression Analysis · Retinal Pigments · Sex Characteristics · Smoking · Xanthophylls · Staphylococcus phage 187

Abstract

Background: Macular pigment (MP), concentrated in the central area of the retina, contains the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin. A low MP density could be a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. Little information is available regarding MP density in relation to serum lutein and zeaxanthin and adipose lutein concentrations in a general population. Objective: The objective was to investigate the associations between MP density and serum lutein, serum zeaxanthin, and adipose lutein, taking into account potential confounders in a population. Design: Volunteers (n = 376) aged 18-75 y were recruited. In a cross-sectional design, serum (n = 376) and adipose tissue (n = 187) were analyzed for carotenoids, and MP density was measured by spectral fundus reflectance. Results: Mean MP density in the total study group was 0.33 ± 0.15. MP density was 13% higher in men than in women (P < 0.05). Serum and blood concentrations of α-tocopherol, vitamin C, and all carotenoids except lycopene were significantly higher in women. Adipose lutein concentrations were also significantly higher in women than in men. Regression models showed a positive significant association between MP density and serum lutein, serum zeaxanthin, and adipose lutein concentrations in men after adjustment for age, but no relation in women. In men, serum lutein remained significantly associated with MP density after adjustment for age, total cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking. Conclusion: The associations between MP density and serum lutein, serum zeaxanthin, and adipose lutein concentrations are stronger in men than in women.