Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in medical, psychological, and management databases. Studies were selected independently by two researchers and included when they presented a conceptual framework of individual work performance. Results: A total of 17 generic frameworks (applying across occupations) and 18 job-specific frameworks (applying to specific occupations) were identified. Dimensions frequently used to describe individual work performance were task performance, contextual performance, counterproductive work behavior, and adaptive performance. Conclusion: On the basis of the literature, a heuristic conceptual framework of individual work performance was proposed. This framework can serve as a theoretical basis for future research and practice. Copyright © 2011 by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.