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Calcium intake is weakly but consistently negatively associated with iron status in girls and women in six European countries

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Author: Vijver, L.P.L. van de · Kardinaal, A.F.M. · Charzewska, J. · Rotily, M. · Charles, P. · Maggiolini, M. · Ando, S. · Väänänen. K. · Wajszczyk, B. · Heikkinen, J. · Deloraine, A. · Schaafsma, G.
Type:article
Date:1999
Institution: Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO
Source:Journal of Nutrition, 5, 129, 963-968
Identifier: 56254
Keywords: Nutrition · Chemistry · Cross- sectional · Dietary calcium · Ferritin · Girls · Iron status · Transferrin saturation · Women · Calcium · Ferritin · Iron · Transferrin · Adolescent · Adult · Calcium intake · Dietary intake · Europe · Female · Human · Human experiment · Iron absorption · Iron blood level · Iron deficiency · Normal human · Regression analysis · School child · Adolescent · Adult · Aging · Ascorbic Acid · Body Height · Body Weight · Calcium, Dietary · Child · Dietary Proteins · Drug Interactions · Energy Intake · Europe · Female · Ferritins · Humans · Iron · Iron, Dietary · Nutritional Status · Transferrin

Abstract

Several studies indicate that intake of calcium can inhibit iron absorption especially when taken simultaneously. In the CALEUR study, a cross-sectional study among girls (mean 13.5 y) and young women (mean 22.0 y) in six European countries, the association between calcium intake and iron status was studied. In 1,080 girls and 524 women, detailed information on calcium intake was collected by means of a 3-d food record, and serum ferritin, serum iron, serum transferrin and transferrin saturation were measured as indicators of iron status. The mean levels of serum iron, ferritin and transferrin were 15.8 ± 6.1 mmol/L, 34.5 ± 19.1 μg/L and 3.47 ± 0.47 g/L, respectively, in girls and 16.9 ± 7.5 mmol/L, 40.2 ± 30.5 and μg/L, 3.59 ± 0.60 g/L, respectively, in women. A consistent inverse association between calcium intake and serum ferritin was found, after adjusting the linear regression model for iron intake, age, menarche, protein, tea and vitamin C intake and country, irrespective of whether calcium was ingested simultaneously with iron. The adjusted overall regression coefficients for girls and women were -0.57 ± 0.20 and -1.36 ± 0.46 per 100 mg/d increase in calcium intake, respectively. Only in girls, transferrin saturation as a measure for short-term iron status was inversely associated with calcium intake (adjusted overall coefficient -0.18 ± 0.08). However, analysis per country separately showed no consistency. We conclude that dietary calcium intake is weakly inversely associated with blood iron status, irrespective of whether calcium was ingested simultaneously with iron.Chemicals/CAS: Ascorbic Acid, 50-81-7; Calcium, Dietary; Dietary Proteins; Ferritins, 9007-73-2; Iron, 7439-89-6; Iron, Dietary; Transferrin, 11096-37-0