Erythritol was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, or 10% to Crl:(WI) WU BR rats of both sexes through two successive generations (F0 and F1). Twenty-four rats of each sex were mated in each group. For each generation one litter was reared until the pups were 21 days old. In the 10% erythritol group, food consumption among F0-males and -females was initially significantly reduced until the animals adapted to the erythritol diet during the first week of the study. Thereafter, food intake was higher than in controls. A consistently increased food intake also was seen in F1-males and females of this dose group. This effect was considered to result from the caloric dilution of the food by erythritol, which has a low physiological energy value. The lower body weight and weight gain of the F0-animals of the 10% erythritol group were attributed to the initially reduced food consumption and occurrence of transient diarrhea until the animals had adapted to the erythritol intake. In the F1-animals of the 10% erythritol group, which were adapted to the treatment from weaning, the rate of body weight gain did not differ from controls. The F1-males and -females of this dose group did, however, have a reduced body weight from weaning, which was attributed to a reduced energy intake among the corresponding F0-dams during Weeks 2 and 3 of lactation. This effect was not seen in the F2-generation. It is concluded that under the conditions of this experiment, the intake of erythritol had no adverse effect on fertility and reproductive performance of parent rats or on the development of their progeny. Gross necropsy and microscopic examination of the parenteral reproductive organs also did not reveal treatment-related changes.