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Turbulence Compensation : an overview

Author: Eekeren, A.W.M. van · Schutte, K. · Dijk, J. · Schwering, P.B.W. · Iersel, M. van · Doelman, N.J.
Type:article
Date:2012
Publisher: SPIE
Place: Bellingham, WA
Source:Holst, G.C.et al, Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XXIII, 24 April 2012, Baltimore, MD, USA, 83550Q
series:
Proceedings of SPIE
Identifier: 462333
doi: doi:10.1117/12.918544
Keywords: Image processing · Image restoration · Phase diversity · Turbulence compensation · Atmospheric conditions · Compensation method · Dedicated hardware · Long range · Look-forward · Lucky imaging · Phase diversity · Roadmap · Software methods · Visual artifacts · Visual detection · Visual identification · Adaptive optics · Deconvolution · Hardware · Image reconstruction · Infrared imaging · Imaging systems · Defence Research · Defence, Safety and Security · Physics & Electronics ; Mechatronics, Mechanics & Materials · II - Intelligent Imaging ; ED - Electronic Defence ; OM - Opto-Mechatronics · TS - Technical Sciences

Abstract

In general, long range visual detection, recognition and identification are hampered by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Much research has been devoted to the field of turbulence compensation. One of the main advantages of turbulence compensation is that it enables visual identification over larger distances. In many (military) scenarios this is of crucial importance. In this paper we give an overview of several software and hardware approaches to compensate for the visual artifacts caused by turbulence. These approaches are very diverse and range from the use of dedicated hardware, such as adaptive optics, to the use of software methods, such as deconvolution and lucky imaging. For each approach the pros and cons are given and it is indicated for which scenario this approach is useful. In more detail we describe the turbulence compensation methods TNO has developed in the last years and place them in the context of the different turbulence compensation approaches and TNO’s turbulence compensation roadmap. Furthermore we look forward and indicate the upcoming challenges in the field of turbulence compensation.