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Criteria and test methodologies for injury assessment of vehicle occupants threatened by landmines and/or IED; an approach by HFM-148/RTG

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Author: Horst, M.J. van der
Institution: TNO Defensie en Veiligheid
Source:5th European Survivability Workshop 2010 (ESW2010), Alesund, Norway, 8-10 June 2010, 13
Identifier: 362730
Keywords: Defence · Anti-Vehicular (AV) mine · IEDs · Vehicle occupant safety · injury criteria · Injury Assessment Reference Value (IARV)


Today STANAG 4569 is working towards a new volume of the AEP-55 including the Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) threat to vehicles and their occupants. Therefore, a follow-up of the HFM-090/TG-25 was required to establish common NATO test procedures and injury criteria for both the Anti-Vehicular (AV) mine and IED-threat, and the HFM-148/RTG was established. The goal of this group was to analyze injury loading mechanisms, investigate injury assessment criteria, define test methods and measurement tools to assess vehicles (and protection systems) against the mine and IED-threat. The combination of attack scenario and seat orientation yields the loading direction for the crew, which is relevant for the general loading mechanisms on the human body. The following body areas are considered the most important ones to be included in the injury assessment: head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen, lumbar spine, upper and lower leg. The qualification of a vehicle depends on whether the responses for these body parts are below the pass/fail levels that are defined. Injury criteria were defined, and the pass/fail (tolerance) levels established for these body regions are considered to represent low risk of lifethreatening and disabling injuries. The criteria are associated with an Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) used for testing. The Hybrid III 50th percentile male is proposed for the loading scenarios where the IED is located underneath, in front or rear of the ATD. The EuroSid-2re 50th percentile male is proposed if the IED is located lateral of the ATD. Available injury criteria and ATDs lack validity for the blast loading conditions. Therefore additional research on the lower leg, the spine and the shoulder was performed. This research led to a more biofidelic surrogate leg (MIL-Lx) together with an injury risk curve to enable more accurate injury assessment for evaluating blast mitigation systems, materials, and structures. Also a new criterion for shoulder impact was developed and a new criterion for the spine is under development. All results are gathered and included in the test and injury assessment protocol which will be part of the STANAG 4569 AEP-55 volume 3. This paper gives an overview of all results, limitations and conclusions of the HFM-148/RTG work.