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The influence of acoustic emissions for underwater data transmission on the behaviour of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen

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Author: Kastelein, R.A. · Verboom, W.C. · Muijsers, M. · Jennings, N.V. · Heul, S. van der
Source:Marine Environmental Research, 4, 59, 287-307
Identifier: 207334
doi: doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2004.05.005
Keywords: Physics · Acoustics · Anthropogenic noise · Deterrence · Dolphin · Ecology · Hydrodynamics · Odontocete · Acoustic waves · Coastal zones · Communication systems · Ecology · Environmental impact · Mathematical models · Seawater · Telecommunication networks · Transmitters · Harbor porpoises · Marine mammals · Shallow coastal waters · Underwater data collection · Ships · Atlantic Ocean · Acoustics · Animal Communication · Communication · Predatory Behavior · Ships · Water Movements · Phocoena phocoena · Phocoenidae


To prevent grounding of ships and collisions between ships in shallow coastal waters, an underwater data collection and communication network is currently under development: Acoustic Communication network for Monitoring of underwater Environment in coastal areas (ACME). Marine mammals might be affected by ACME sounds since they use sounds of similar frequencies (around 12 kHz) for communication, orientation, and prey location. If marine mammals tend to avoid the vicinity of the transmitters, they may be kept away from ecologically important areas by ACME sounds. One marine mammal species that may be affected in the North Sea is the harbour porpoise. Therefore, as part of an environmental impact assessment program, two captive harbour porpoises were subjected to four sounds, three of which may be used in the underwater acoustic data communication network. The effect of each sound was judged by comparing the animals' positions and respiration rates during a test period with those during a baseline period. Each of the four sounds could be made a deterrent by increasing the amplitude of the sound. The porpoises reacted by swimming away from the sounds and by slightly, but significantly, increasing their respiration rate. From the sound pressure level distribution in the pen, and the distribution of the animals during test sessions, discomfort sound level thresholds were determined for each sound. In combination with information on sound propagation in the areas where the communication system may be deployed, the extent of the 'discomfort zone' can be estimated for several source levels (SLs). The discomfort zone is defined as the area around a sound source that harbour porpoises are expected to avoid. Based on these results, SLs can be selected that have an acceptable effect on harbour porpoises in particular areas. The discomfort zone of a communication sound depends on the selected sound, the selected SL, and the propagation characteristics of the area in which the sound system is operational. In shallow, winding coastal water courses, with sandbanks, etc., the type of habitat in which the ACME sounds will be produced, propagation loss cannot be accurately estimated by using a simple propagation model, but should be measured on site. The SL of the communication system should be adapted to each area (taking into account bounding conditions created by narrow channels, sound propagation variability due to environmental factors, and the importance of an area to the affected species). The discomfort zone should not prevent harbour porpoises from spending sufficient time in ecologically important areas (for instance feeding areas), or routes towards these areas. © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.