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Intragastric formation and modulation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model under human physiological conditions

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Author: Krul, C.A.M. · Zeilmaker, M.J. · Schothorst, R.C. · Havenaar, R.
Institution: TNO Voeding
Source:Food and Chemical Toxicology, 1, 42, 51-63
Identifier: 237551
doi: doi:10.1016/j.fct.2003.08.005
Keywords: Biology · Physiological Sciences · Ascorbic acid · Codfish · Gastrointestinal model · N-nitrosodimethylamine · Nitrite · Toxicokinetic model · carcinogen · dimethylamine · dimethylnitrosamine · nitrate · nitrite · thiocyanate · article · fish · gastrointestinal tract · in vitro study · model · mouth flora · nitrosation · orange juice · physiology · quantitative analysis · saliva · simulation · statistical significance · stomach pH · tea · Animals · Antioxidants · Ascorbic Acid · Carcinogens · Citrus sinensis · Dimethylnitrosamine · Fishes · Flavonoids · Gastric Emptying · Gastric Juice · Humans · Hydrogen-Ion Concentration · Kinetics · Models, Biological · Nitric Oxide · Nitrites · Phenols · Species Specificity · Stomach · Tea · Thiocyanates · Clupea harengus · Pleuronectes platessa · Pollachius pollachius


Human exposure to carcinogenic N-alkylnitrosamines can occur exogenously via food consumption or endogenously by formation of these compounds through nitrosation of amine precursors. Information on the intragastric formation of NDMA from complex mixtures of precursors and inhibitors in humans is not available. In this study the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) has been quantitatively analysed in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model, in which gastric conditions can be modulated and closely simulates the physiological situation in humans. Substantial amounts of NDMA were produced when nitrite and dimethylamine or codfish were simultaneously introduced into the model. However, humans are gradually exposed to nitrite by the intake of nitrate-containing food. Nitrate secreted in saliva is converted to nitrite by oral bacteria. To mimic the human exposure to nitrite in a realistic way, nitrite was gradually added into the gastric compartment, simulating the swallowing of nitrite containing oral fluid after the intake of nitrate at the level of 0.1-10 times the ADI. Under these conditions, the cumulative amounts of NDMA formed were 2.3-422 μg NDMA and 1.8-42.7 μg NDMA at a rapid and slow gastric pH decrease, respectively. Beside codfish, various fish species and batches in combination with nitrite, simulating the intake of for times the ADI of nitrate, were investigated. Herring, pollack and plaice were also able to induce NDMA formation. Mackerel, salmon and pike perch did not result in increased NDMA formation. Furthermore, the effect of nitrosation modulators on NDMA formation was investigated. Thiocyanate (2 mM) increased NDMA formation, but the increase was not statistically significant. In contrast, orange jus and tea effectively, but not totally, reduced the amount of NDMA formed in the gastric compartment. These experiments show that (1) the dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model is an appropriate tool for mechanistic studies on the intragastric formation of nitrosamines, and (2) that the results obtained with this model are helpful in evaluating human cancer risk for the combined intake of codfish-like fish species and nitrate-containing vegetables. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.