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Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods

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Author: Coulier, L. · Bradley, E.L. · Bas, R.C. · Verhoeckx, K.C.M. · Driffield, M. · Harmer, N. · Castle, L.
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 8, 58, 4873-4882
Identifier: 408481
Keywords: Biology · Biomedical Research · Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) · Canned foods · Food ingredients · Food packaging · Reaction products · Stable isotopes · 2,2 bis(4 glycidyloxyphenyl)propane · 2,2-bis(4-glycidyloxyphenyl)propane · epoxide · article · food contamination · mass spectrometry · spectrofluorometry · Epoxy Compounds · Food Contamination · Mass Spectrometry · Spectrometry, Fluorescence · Malus x domestica · Scombridae


Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is an epoxide that is used as a starting substance in the manufacture of can coatings for food-contact applications. Following migration from the can coating into food, BADGE levels decay and new reaction products are formed by reaction with food ingredients. The significant decay of BADGE was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of foodstuffs, that is, tuna, apple puree, and beer, spiked with BADGE before processing and storage. Life-science inspired analytical approaches were successfully applied to study the reactions of BADGE with food ingredients, for example, amino acids and sugars. An improved mass balance of BADGE was achieved by selective detection of reaction products of BADGE with low molecular weight food components, using a successful combination of stable isotopes of BADGE and analysis by LC coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD) and high-resolution mass spectrometric (MS) detection. Furthermore, proteomics approaches showed that BADGE also reacts with peptides (from protein digests in model systems) and with proteins in foods. The predominant reaction center for amino acids, peptides, and proteins was cysteine. © 2010 American Chemical Society.