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High-throughput processes for industrially scalable deposition of zinc oxide at atmospheric pressure

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Author: Illiberi, A. · Grob, F. · Kniknie, B. · Frijters, C. · Deelen, J. van · Poodt, P. · Beckers, E.H.A. · Bolt, P.J.
Publisher: Elsevier
Source:Energy Procedia, 44, 37-43
Identifier: 489149
doi: doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.12.007
Keywords: Industry Energy · Atmospheric pressure · Chemical vapor deposition · Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition · Thin films solar cells · Zinc oxide · Energy / Geological Survey Netherlands Industrial Innovation · Mechanics, Materials and Structures · TFT - Thin Film Technology · TS - Technical Sciences


ZnO films have been grown on a moving glass substrate by high temperature (480 0C) chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and low temperature (200 0C) plasma enhanced CVD (PE-CVD) process at atmospheric pressure. Deposition rates above 7 nm/s have been achieved for substrate speeds from 20 to 500 mm/min. The conductivity of the films is enhanced by Al doping of CVD ZnO or by exposure to near-UV radiation of PE-CVD ZnO. Both CVD ZnO:Al and UV-exposed PE-CVD i-ZnO films are highly transparent (> 85% in the visible range) and conductive (< 15 Ohm/sq for a thickness above 1200 nm). ZnO:Al has been used as front electrode in amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells while i-ZnO has been applied as electrode in CIGS solar cells, achieving an efficiency of 8% and 15.4%, respectively. © 2014 The Authors.