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Determinants of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE) concentration in adipose tissue in women from five European cities

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Author: Sanz-Gallardo, M.I. · Guallar, E. · Veer, P. van 't · Longnecker, M.P. · Strain, J.J. · Martin, B.C. · Kardinaal, A.F.M. · Fernández-Crehuet, J. · Thamm, M. · Kohlmeier, L. · Kok, F.J. · Martín-Moreno, J.M.
Type:article
Date:1999
Source:Archives of Environmental Health, 4, 54, 277-283
Identifier: 235079
Keywords: 1,1 dichloro 2,2 bis(4 chlorophenyl)ethylene · antioxidant · arachidic acid · biological marker · fatty acid · retinol · adipose tissue · adult · aged · article · breast cancer · cancer risk · city · controlled study · Europe · female · fish · food chain · food contamination · food intake · human · human tissue · major clinical study · postmenopause · priority journal · regression analysis · tissue level · Adipose Tissue · Aged · Antioxidants · Cross-Sectional Studies · Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene · Diet · Environmental Exposure · Environmental Monitoring · Europe · Fatty Acids · Female · Food Contamination · Humans · Insecticides · Linear Models · Middle Aged · Multivariate Analysis · Postmenopause · Questionnaires · Risk Factors · Urban Health

Abstract

To identify the determinants of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) in adipose tissue in subjects who participated in a cross- sectional study, we analyzed fatty acids, antioxidants, and p,p'-DDE in aspirates of adipose tissue of 328 postmenopausal women from 5 European countries. The overall mean of p,p'-DDE concentration was 1.66 μg/g of fatty acids (95% confidence interval = 1.46, 1.88). In a multiple-regression analysis, the main predictors of log10(p,p'-DDE) were center of recruitment (p < .0001), adipose arachidic acid (p = .001), and adipose retinol (p = .04). These factors explained 14.9% of the overall variability of log10(p,p'-DDE). In our subjects, adipose tissue p,p'-DDE concentrations were only weakly related with biomarkers reflecting intake of fish and other foods. This result is consistent with the notion that p,p'-DDE exists in different foods and, given the widespread contamination of the food chain, is relatively evenly distributed among foods.