Carpet layers and age-matched controls were investigated both at the beginning of a working day and at the end with four subtests of a neuropsychological test battery (NES2). Exposure to toluene, cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, and heptane was measured with personal air sampling methods. One group of carpet layers used water-based adhesives (WBA) on the day the investigation took place and the other group used contact adhesives (CA) on that day. The WBA group was exposed primarily to toluene, and the CA group was exposed to other solvents as well. Initial (before work) differences in neuropsychological scores between all exposed workers and controls could be attributed to differences in education, the carpet layers being somewhat higher educated. No differences were found between the solvent-exposed and control groups that would suggest persistent effects of chronic solvent exposures. The improvement in test scores over the day was the same in both groups. However, evidence for exposure-related changes in test scores over the day were found within the exposed group.