A glass-polymer system of a polyurethane elastomeric matrix with a single 3 mm-diameter glass particle was investigated using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) setup for revealing the dynamic compressive mechanical response. This study produced the characteristics of the dynamic stress-strain relation and the relations for the rate dependencies of yield stress, maximum stress and strain energy. A high-speed camera was applied to record crack initiation, propagation and fragmentation fracture. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to explore the dynamic damage mechanisms. The static and dynamic compressive mechanical properties of a glass-polymer system were compared with these of monolithic polyurethane elastomeric polymer material. The results of this study provide the dynamic response at unit cell level and are used for development and evaluation of transparent, impact-resistant protection concepts of glass-polymer systems.