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Herring (sild), killer whales (spekkhogger) and sonar : The 3S-2006 cruise report with preliminary results

Author: Kvadsheim, P. · Benders, F.P.A. · Miller, P. · Doksµter, L. · Knudsen, F. · Tyack, P. · Kleivane, L. · God°, O.R. · Norlund, N. · Lam, F-P.A. · Samarra, F.
Publisher: Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt/Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI)
Place: Kjeller
Institution: TNO Defensie en Veiligheid
Identifier: 219141
Report number: FFI-rapport 2007/01189
Keywords: Marine · Sonar · Environmental impact · Fish · Cetaceans


This report summarises the outcome of an international research cruise in Norwegian waters (Vestfjorden) in November 2006. The objectives of the trial were to study impacts of military low frequency - (LFAS 1-2 kHz) and mid frequency - (MFAS 6-7 kHz) active sonars on killer whales and herring. In addition the capability of active and passive sonar systems for detection of marine mammals, in order to mitigate possible effects of sonars or seismic sources, were tested.