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Mathematical human modelling for impact loading

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Author: Happee, R. · Hoof, J.F.A.M. van · Lange, R. de
Institution: TNO Wegtransportmiddelen
Source:Presented at the NAFEMS 8th International World Congress on 'The evolution of product simulation: from established methods to virtual testing & prototyping', Lake Como, Italy, 24-28 April, 2001
Identifier: 362249
Keywords: Traffic · biomechanics · impacts · comfort · human models · validation


Mathematical modeling of the human body is widely used for automotive crash-safety research and design. Simulations have contributed to a reduction of injury numbers by optimization of vehicle structures and restraint systems. Currently, such simulations are largely performed using occupant models based on crash dummies. Mathematical modeling of the real human body offers improved biofidelity and allows the study of aspects like body size, posture, muscular activity and post fracture response. A range of MADYMO human models has been developed for impact and is now being extended for comfort evaluation. These include full multibody human models, multibody detailed segment models, FE segment models and a full FE human model. The models have been developed using a modular approach and several combinations of segment models and full body models are available. The human models are omni-directional and are therefore applicable for frontal, lateral and rearward impacts as well as intermediate impact directions and more complicated scenarios like rollover.