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Quantifying phenotypic flexibility as the response to a high-fat challenge test in different states of metabolic health

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Author: Kardinaal, A.F.M. · Erk, M.J. van · Dutman, A.E. · Stroeve, J.H.M. · Steeg, E. van de · Bijlsma, S. · Kooistra, T. · Ommen, B. van · Wopereis, S.
Source:FASEB Journal, 11, 29, 4600-4613
Identifier: 530274
doi: doi:10.1096/fj.14-269852
Keywords: Biology · Clinical study · Eicosanoids · Human physiology · Nutrition · Systems biology · Fat · Glucose · Adipose tissue · Adult · Aged · Controlled study · Glucose metabolism · Health · Homeostasis · Human · Male · Metabolic syndrome X · Metabolism · Open study · Pilot study · Provocation test · Quantitative analysis · Stress · Biomedical Innovation · Healthy Living · Life · MSB - Microbiology and Systems Biology · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences


Metabolism maintains homeostasis at chronic hypercaloric conditions, activating postprandial response mechanisms, which come at the cost of adaptation processes such as energy storage, eventually with negative health consequences. This study quantified the metabolic adaptation capacity by studying challenge response curves. After a high-fat challenge, the 8 h response curves of 61 biomarkers related to adipose tissue mass and function, systemic stress, metabolic flexibility, vascular health, and glucose metabolism was compared between 3 metabolic health stages: 10 healthy men, before and after 4 wk of highfat, high-calorie diet (1300 kcal/d extra), and 9 men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The MetS subjects had increased fasting concentrations of biomarkers representing the 3 core processes, glucose, TG, and inflammation control, and the challenge response curves ofmost biomarkers were altered. After the 4 wk hypercaloric dietary intervention, these 3 processes were not changed, as compared with the preintervention state in the healthy subjects, whereas the challenge response curves of almost all endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory processes regulating these core processes were altered, demonstrating major molecular physiologic efforts tomaintain homeostasis.This study thus demonstrates that change in challenge response is a more sensitive biomarker of metabolic resilience than are changes in fasting concentrations. Chemicals/CAS: glucose, 50-99-7, 84778-64-3