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Dermal route in systemic exposure

Author: Benford, D.J. · Cocker, J. · Sartorelli, P. · Schneider, T. · Hemmen, J. van · Firth, J.G.
Institution: Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO TNO Voeding
Source:Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 6, 25, 511-520
Identifier: 235271
Keywords: Nutrition · Measurement and Testing Framework Programme Four · Percutaneous penetration · Risk assessment · Skin contamination · Standards · Surface contamination · Biological monitoring · Methodology · Occupational exposure · Priority journal · Review · Environmental Monitoring · Hazardous Substances · Humans · Occupational Exposure · Skin · Skin Absorption


To evaluate risk from dermal exposure, the amount of material on the skin must first be measured. The potential for dermal uptake must then be assessed for the potential health effects from systemic exposure. No standard methods exist for studying these processes, and published data are not comparable because of the different techniques used. Future validated methodology should provide a sound scientific basis for risk assessment. Methods for measuring skin and surface contamination will require development of reference contaminated surfaces and skin as part of quality control procedures. Biological monitoring is a valuable tool in the assessment of dermal absorption, in contributing to the validation of in vitro techniques, and in risk assessment and management. It will be necessary to conduct detailed investigations to support risk assessment for dermal exposure. Ultimately, predictive models will be established for exposure and for dermal absorption to support a generic approach and allow risk assessment strategies appropriate to actual workplace situations. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.