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Use of biosensors for rapid drug residue analysis without sample deconjugation or clean-up: A possible way forward

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Author: Elliott, C.T. · Baxter, G.A. · Hewitt, S.A. · Arts, C.J.M. · Baak, M. van · Hellenäs, K.-E. · Johannson, A.
Institution: Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO
Source:Analyst, 12, 123, 2469-2473
Identifier: 234793
doi: DOI:10.1039/a804855j
Keywords: Nutrition · Drug residue · Reagent · Salbutamol · Solvent · Animal experiment · Biosensor · Cattle · Conference paper · Controlled study · Device · Drug conjugation · Drug determination · Drug hydrolysis · Drug urine level · Gas chromatography · Immunoassay · Male · Mass spectrometer · Mass spectrometry · Nonhuman · Oral drug administration · Radioimmunoassay · Adrenergic beta-Agonists · Albuterol · Animals · Biosensing Techniques · Cattle · Drug Residues · Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry · Growth Substances · Immunoassay · Male · Radioimmunoassay · Sensitivity and Specificity


The drug salbutamol (SBL) is a β-agonist that may be used illegally as an animal growth promoter. SBL is also a good example of a drug which is excreted in the form of glucuronides and sulfates. Such metabolites cause complexities in analysing for the presence of drug residues. In the majority of cases a process of deconjugation and sample clean-up is required prior to analysis. This is both time consuming and causes some loss of accuracy. In this study, the urine of calves treated with SBL orally for 3 d was collected during and after medication. Samples were assayed before and after hydrolysis by two different methods, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and a newly developed biosensor immunoassay (BIA). Some samples were also analysed by GC-MS. The results clearly showed that both screening assays (RIA and BIA) found high concentrations of SBL residues throughout the study. This was especially true in the BIA method. It was also demonstrated that urine sample analysis without the need for deconjugation or clean-up could be achieved. Results obtained by GC-MS tended to be an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding screening test results. This work showed that biosensor based veterinary drug residue testing procedures can be developed which can generate results in real time without the need for time consuming sample preparation.