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The influence of microbial metabolites on human intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro

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Author: Nuenen, M.H.M.C. van · Ligt, R.A.F. de · Doornbos, R.P. · Woude, J.C.J. van der · Kuipers, E.J. · Venema, K.
Type:article
Date:2005
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 2, 45, 183-189
Identifier: 238626
doi: doi:10.1016/j.femsim.2005.03.010
Keywords: Nutrition · Physiological Sciences · Interleukin-10 · Intestinal epithelial cells · Macrophages · Microbial metabolites · Tumour necrosis factor-α · ammonia · butyric acid · cytokine · interleukin 10 · tumor necrosis factor alpha · valeric acid · article · cell strain CACO 2 · concentration (parameters) · cytokine release · electric resistance · enteritis · epithelium cell · human · human cell · immunity · macrophage · metabolism · metabolite · physiology · priority journal · Ammonium Chloride · Butyrates · Caco-2 Cells · Epithelial Cells · Humans · Immunity, Mucosal · Inflammatory Bowel Diseases · Interleukin-10 · Intestines · Macrophages · Pentanoic Acids · Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha · U937 Cells

Abstract

Microbial metabolites may influence the metabolic integrity of intestinal epithelial cells and induce mucosal immune responses. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the microbial metabolites butyrate, iso-valerate, and ammonium on Caco-2 cells and macrophages. Barrier functioning was determined by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and basolateral recoveries of metabolites. The barrier function of Caco-2 cells remained intact after exposures. Basolateral recoveries ranged from 6.2% to 15.2%. Tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 were measured to determine immune reactions. The Caco-2 cells did not secrete both cytokines. Physiological concentrations of butyrate and iso-valerate stimulated the secretion of tumour necrosis factor-α and suppressed the secretion of interleukin-10 by macrophages that are not protected by an epithelial barrier. In contrast, ammonium concentrations as high as those produced by microbiotas of IBD patients suppressed the release of both cytokines when the barrier function is impaired. © 2005 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.