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Determinants of bone mass and bone geometry in adolescent and young adult women

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Author: Kardinaal, A.F.M. · Hoorneman, G. · Väänänen, K. · Charles, P. · Ando, S. · Maggiolini, M. · Charzewska, J. · Rotily, M. · Deloraine, A. · Heikkinen, J. · Juvin, R. · Schaafsma, G.
Institution: Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO
Source:Calcified Tissue International, 2, 66, 81-89
Identifier: 56521
Keywords: Body size · Bone mineral density · Cortical wall thickness · Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry · Grip strength · Calcium · Adolescence · Adolescent · Adult · Age · Anthropometry · Body size · Body weight · Bone bowing · Bone density · Bone mass · Bone mineral · Bone strength · Bone structure · Calcium intake · Caucasian · Dual energy X ray absorptiometry · Europe · Female · Grip strength · Height · Human · Human experiment · Lifestyle · Mechanical stress · Menarche · Normal human · Physical activity · Priority journal · Puberty · Questionnaire · Radius · School child · Adolescent · Adult · Age Factors · Body Constitution · Body Height · Body Weight · Bone and Bones · Bone Density · Calcium, Dietary · Child · Cross-Sectional Studies · Europe · European Continental Ancestry Group · Female · Humans · Life Style · Menarche


Bone mass and bone geometry are considered to have independent effects on bone strength. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on bone mass and geometry in young female populations and how they are influenced by body size and lifestyle factors. In a cross-sectional, observational study in six European countries, 1116 healthy Caucasian girls aged 11-15 and 526 women aged 20-23 participated. Their radius was scanned at the ultradistal site and at a site approximately 30% of the radius length from the distal end with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The following parameters were assessed from the scans: bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), cortical wall thickness (CWT), middistal diameter (D), cortical index (CI = 2CWT/D), and the Breaking Bending Resistance Index (BBRI = (D4 - [D- CWT]4/D). Calcium intake was assessed by 3-day food records and physical activity by questionnaire. Body size parameters were measured by anthropometry. All parameters showed an increasing trend with pubertal stage and age, except for physical activity and calcium intake. BMC and BMD were relatively more dependent on body weight and age at menarche, whereas variation in D and the mechanical index BBRI was better explained by differences in height and grip strength. CI and CWT were relatively independent of variation in body size, whereas BMC and BBRI especially were explained for a substantial proportion (25-33% in the young adults) by body size parameters. Dietary intake of calcium and level of physical activity seem to contribute little to variation in bone parameters. Chemicals/CAS: Calcium, Dietary