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Parent Training Programs for Ethnic Minorities: a Meta-analysis of Adaptations and Effect

Author: Mourik, K. van · Crone, M.R. · Wolff, M.S. de · Reis, R.
Source:Prevention Science, 1, 18, 95-105
Identifier: 573996
doi: doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0733-5
Keywords: Health · Cultural adaptation · Ethnic minority · Intervention · Meta-analysis · Parenting behavior · Healthy for Life · Healthy Living · Life · CH - Child Health · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences


This meta-analysis focuses on parent training programs for ethnic minority families and reports on (i) the adaptation of program content and (ii) the process that informs these adaptations. Relevant studies are reviewed to determine the adaptations made and the impact of the adaptations on parenting and child outcomes. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they enrolled predominantly ethnic minority parents with children aged 0-12 years, used a randomized controlled trial design with post-intervention assessments, focused on group-based parent training programs and on prevention of parenting problems, and reported parenting behavior outcomes. A total of 18 studies were included in the analysis. The results show that parent training programs targeting ethnic minority parents have a small but significant effect on improving parenting behavior (k = 18, Cohen's d = 0.30), child outcomes (k = 16, Cohen's d = 0.13), and parental perspectives (k = 8, Cohen's d = 0.19). Most of the programs made adaptations related to surface and deep structure sensitivity. Programs with cultural adaptations, especially deep structure sensitivity (k = 7, Cohen's d = 0.54), are more effective in improving parenting behavior. Because only a third of the included studies provided details on the processes that guided the adaptations made, additional studies are needed to provide information on the process of adaptation; this will enable others to learn from the procedures that can be undertaken to culturally adapt interventions.