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Moving base driving simulators potential carsickness research

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Author: Kuiper, O.X. · Bos, J.E. · Diels, C. · Cammaerts, K.
Source:Applied Ergonomics, 81, 102889
Identifier: 868033
doi: doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2019.102889
Keywords: Carsickness · Driving simulator · Simulator sickness · Automobile simulators · Autonomous vehicles · Street traffic control · Maximum displacement · Motion base simulators · Motion sickness · Moving base · Simulator cabin · Simulator sickness · Diseases · Acceleration · Adult · Car driving · Female · Human · Human experiment · Male · Motion · Motion sickness · Stimulus response · Visual deprivation · Visual stimulation


We investigated whether motion sickness analogous to carsickness can be studied in a moving base simulator, despite the limited motion envelope. Importantly, to avoid simulator sickness, vision outside the simulator cabin was restricted. Participants (N = 16) were exposed blindfolded to 15-min lateral sinusoidal motion at 0.2 Hz and 0.35 Hz on separate days. These conditions were selected to realize optimal provocativeness of the stimulus given the simulator's maximum displacement and knowledge on frequency-acceleration interactions for motion sickness. Average motion sickness on an 11-point scale was 2.21 ± 1.97 for 0.2 Hz and 1.93 ± 1.94 for 0.35 Hz. The motion sickness increase over time was comparable to that found in studies using actual vehicles. We argue that motion base simulators can be used to incite motion sickness analogous to carsickness, provided considerable restrictions on vision. Future research on carsickness, potentially more prevalent in autonomous vehicles, could benefit from employing simulators.