Objective: Many obstetric interventions are performed to improve long-term neonatal outcome. However, long-term neonatal outcome is usually not a primary outcome because it is time-consuming and expensive. The aim of this project was to identify different perinatal risk indicators and to develop prediction models for neurologic morbidity at 2 and 5 years of age. Study design: Data from a Dutch cohort study of preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants was used. Neonates who were born in The Netherlands in 1983 with a gestational age of <34 weeks and without congenital abnormalities were included (n = 753). Infants were divided in 3 groups: no handicap, minor handicap, and major handicap. Results: Common risk indicators for major handicaps at 2 and 5 years of age were male sex (odds ratio, 2.7 and 3.0, respectively), seizures after <2 days of life (odds ratio, 5.8 and 5.8, respectively), and intracranial hemorrhage (odds ratio, 3.8 and 2.6, respectively). Conclusion: In this cohort, male sex, intracranial hemorrhage, and seizures seem to be important risk indicators for long-term neurologic morbidity. © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.