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Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies

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Author: Koppes, L.L.J. · Dekker, J.M. · Hendriks, H.F.J. · Bouter, L.M. · Heine, R.J.
Type:article
Date:2005
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:Diabetes Care, 3, 28, 719-725
Identifier: 238367
doi: doi:10.2337/diacare.28.3.719
Keywords: Health · Physiological Sciences · alcohol consumption · body mass · cohort analysis · human · meta analysis · non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus · observation · prospective study · review · risk assessment · risk reduction · self report · sex difference · systematic review · Alcohol Drinking · Cohort Studies · Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 · Humans · Prevalence · Risk Factors

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - This meta-analysis was undertaken to obtain insight regarding the shape and strength of the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, the effects of adjustment for confounders, and the effect of modification by type 2 diabetes definition, sex, and BMI. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The 15 original prospective cohort studies that were included comprise 11,959 incident cases of type 2 diabetes in 369,862 individuals who, on average, were followed for 12 years. RESULTS - After pooling the data, a U-shaped relationship was found. Compared with nonconsumers, the relative risk (RR) for type 2 diabetes in those who consumed ≤6 g/day alcohol was 0.87 (95% CI 0.79-0.95). For the moderate consumption ranges of 6-12, 12-24, and 24-48 g/day, RRs of 0.70 (0.61-0.79), 0.69 (0.58-0.81), and 0.72 (0.62-0.84) were found, respectively. The risk of type 2 diabetes in heavy drinkers (≥48 g/day) was equal to that in nonconsumers (1.04 [0.84-1.29]). In general, nonsignificant trends for larger RR reduction associated with moderate alcohol consumption were observed for women compared with men, for crude compared with multivariate-adjusted analyses, and for studies that used self-reports instead of testing for type 2 diabetes definition. No differences in RR reductions were found between individuals with low or high BMI. CONCLUSIONS - The present evidence from observational studies suggests an ∼30% reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in moderate alcohol consumers, whereas no risk reduction is observed in consumers of ≥48 g/day. © 2005 by the American Diabetes Association.