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The rat incisor in toxicologic pathology

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Author: Kuijpers, M.H.M. · Kooij, A.J. van de · Slootweg, P.J.
Institution: TNO Voeding
Source:Toxicologic Pathology, 3, 24, 346-360
Identifier: 233305
Keywords: Toxicology · adenomatoid odontogenic tumor · calcium metabolism · cementoblastoma · dental callus · hyperparathyroidism · malocclusion · odontogenic ossifying fibroma · odontoma · pre-odontoma · Vitamin D hypervitaminosis · animal model · animal tissue · histopathology · incisor · mineral metabolism · nonhuman · odontogenic tumor · priority journal · rat · review · toxicology · vitamin d intoxication · animal · chemically induced disorder · injury · malocclusion · metabolism · mouse · pathology · physiology · tooth disease · Animalia · Rodentia · Animals · Incisor · Malocclusion · Mice · Rats · Tooth Diseases


Microscopic examination of the incisors of rats and mice may reveal toxicologically significant changes. First, the incisor morphology reflects the nutritional status of the animal: fluctuations of mineral metabolism and vitamin availability are disclosed by the rodent incisors, because the incisors continue to grow during life. Similarly, direct or indirect changes of mineral metabolism by a test substance are reflected in the morphological appearance of the incisor dentin. In addition, hormonal disturbances may give rise to typical structural alterations of the incisor in the test animal. Certain chemicals may have deleterious effects upon the odontogenic tissues, resulting in tooth malformation and malocclusion and eventually in odontomas. Apparent nasal tumors may turn out to be of dental origin. Nasal luminal masses that are discussed within this scope are dental malformation, dental callus, and true odontogenic tumors. According to our experience, odontogenic tumors might possibly develop within the scope of a reaction to mechanical tooth trauma as well. In carcinogenicity studies, this consideration deserves attention when evaluating treatment related putative odontogenic tumors.