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Brake wear from vehicles as an important source of diffuse copper pollution

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Author: Hulskotte, J.H.J. · Gon, H.A.C.D. van der · Visschedijk, A.J.H. · Schaap, M.
Type:article
Date:2007
Institution: TNO Bouw en Ondergrond
Source:Tanik A.Ozturk I.Yazgan M.S.Heath R., Water Science and Technology, 1, 56, 223-231
Identifier: 240137
ISBN: 1843395975 9781843395973
Keywords: Environment · Atmospheric deposition · Brake wear · Copper · Emission validation · Particle emission · Automobile parts and equipment · Copper · Mathematical models · Particulate emissions · Surface waters · Atmospheric sopper concentrations · Atmspheric deposition · Brake wear emissions · Emission validation · Brakes · copper · surface water · Automobile parts and equipment · Brakes · Copper · Mathematical models · Particulate emissions · Surface waters · atmospheric deposition · copper · diffusion · estimation method · pollutant source · traffic emission · water pollution · wear · air pollution · Atlantic Ocean · atmospheric diffusion · car · conference paper · Europe · exhaust gas · geographic distribution · mathematical analysis · Netherlands · particulate matter · urban area · water analysis · water contamination · water pollutant · water pollution · water quality · Automobiles · Copper · Diffusion · Environmental Pollutants · Europe · Sewage · Time Factors · Atlantic Ocean · Eurasia · Europe · North Sea · Western Europe

Abstract

In this article we show that brake wear from road traffic vehicles is an important source of atmospheric (participate) copper concentrations in Europe. Consequently, brake wear also contributes significantly to deposition fluxes of copper to surface waters. We estimated the copper emission due to brake wear to be 2.4 kiloton per year. For comparison, the official database for Europe (without brake wear) totals 2.6 kiloton per year. In Western Europe the brake wear emissions dominate the total emission of copper. Using the spatially resolved emission data, copper distributions over Europe were calculated with the LOTOS-EUROS model. Without brake wear the model underestimates observed copper concentrations by a factor of 3, which is in accordance with other studies. Including the brake wear emissions largely removes the bias. We find that 75% of the atmospheric copper input in the North Sea may be due to brake wear. We estimate that about 25% of the total copper input in the Dutch part of the North Sea stems from brake wear. Although the estimated brake wear copper emission is associated with a large uncertainty, it significantly improves our understanding of the copper cycle in the environment. © IWA Publishing 2007.