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Non-exhaust emissions of PM and the efficiency of emission reduction by road sweeping and washing in the Netherlands

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Author: Keuken, M. · Denier Gon, H. van der · Valk, K. van der
Type:article
Date:2010
Institution: TNO Bouw en Ondergrond
Source:Science of the Total Environment, 20, 408, 4591-4599
Identifier: 409261
Keywords: Environment · Local measures · Non-exhaust emissions · Particulate matter · Traffic emissions · Amsterdam · Coarse fractions · Emission reduction · Exhaust emission · Local measures · Mediterranean countries · Netherlands · Particulate Matter · Re-suspension · Road traffic · Road wear · Seasonal variation · Tire wear · Total mass · Traffic emissions · Urban areas · Urban background · Air pollution · Brakes · Copper · Heavy metals · Roads and streets · Suspensions (fluids) · Tires · Washing · Zinc · Particulate emissions · carbon · copper · metal · rain · zinc · emission control · heavy metal · particulate matter · seasonal variation · traffic emission · article · chemical composition · cleaning · controlled study · exhaust gas · meteorological phenomena · motor vehicle tire · Netherlands · particulate matter · priority journal · urban area · wind · Amsterdam [North Holland] · Netherlands · North Holland · Scandinavia

Abstract

From research on PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> in 2007/2008 in the Netherlands, it was concluded that the coarse fraction (PM<sub>2.5-10</sub>) attributed 60% and 50% respectively, to the urban-regional and street-urban increments of PM<sub>10</sub>. Contrary to Scandinavian and Mediterranean countries which exhibit significant seasonal variation in the coarse fraction of particulate matter (PM), in the Netherlands the coarse fraction in PM at a street location is rather constant during the year. Non-exhaust emissions by road traffic are identified as the main source for coarse PM in urban areas. Non-exhaust emissions mainly originate from re-suspension of accumulated deposited PM and road wear related particles, while primary tire and brake wear hardly contribute to the mass of non-exhaust emissions. However, tire and brake wear can clearly be identified in the total mass through the presence of the heavy metals: zinc, a tracer for tire wear and copper, a tracer for brake wear.The efficiency of road sweeping and washing to reduce non-exhaust emissions in a street-canyon in Amsterdam was investigated. The increments of the coarse fraction at a kerbside location and a housing façade location versus the urban background were measured at days with and without sweeping and washing. It was concluded that this measure did not significantly reduce non-exhaust emissions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.